Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum Strain Bosnia A: The Genome Is Related to Yaws Treponemes but Contains Few Loci Similar to Syphilis Treponemes

Collection with item attached
2014_11
Item details URL
http://open-repository.kisti.re.kr/cube/handle/open_repository/2146.do
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003261
journal_title
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
eissn
1935-2735
publisher_name
Public Library of Science
article_id
10.1371/journal.pntd.0003261
article_title
Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum Strain Bosnia A: The Genome Is Related to Yaws Treponemes but Contains Few Loci Similar to Syphilis Treponemes
surname
Štaudová
given_names
Barbora
address
Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
surname
Strouhal
given_names
Michal
address
Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
The Genome Institute, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
surname
Zobaníková
given_names
Marie
address
Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
surname
Čejková
given_names
Darina
address
Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
The Genome Institute, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
surname
Fulton
given_names
Lucinda L.
address
The Genome Institute, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
surname
Chen
given_names
Lei
address
The Genome Institute, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
surname
Giacani
given_names
Lorenzo
address
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
surname
Centurion-Lara
given_names
Arturo
address
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
surname
Bruisten
given_names
Sylvia M.
address
Public Health Service GGD Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
surname
Sodergren
given_names
Erica
address
The Genome Institute, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
surname
Weinstock
given_names
George M.
address
The Genome Institute, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
surname
Šmajs
given_names
David
email
dsmajs@med.muni.cz
address
Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
pub_date:2014-11-06
history_received:2014-05-26
history_accepted:2014-09-10
volume
8
issue
11
title
Background
p
T. pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of bejel (also known as endemic syphilis). Clinical symptoms of syphilis and bejel are overlapping and the epidemiological context is important for correct diagnosis of both diseases. In contrast to syphilis, caused by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), TEN infections are usually spread by direct contact or contaminated utensils rather than by sexual contact. Bejel is most often seen in western Africa and in the Middle East. The strain Bosnia A was isolated in 1950 in Bosnia, southern Europe.
title
Methodology/Principal Findings
p
The complete genome of the Bosnia A strain was amplified and sequenced using the pooled segment genome sequencing (PSGS) method and a combination of three next-generation sequencing techniques (SOLiD, Roche 454, and Illumina). Using this approach, a total combined average genome coverage of 513× was achieved. The size of the Bosnia A genome was found to be 1,137,653 bp, i.e. 1.6–2.8 kbp shorter than any previously published genomes of uncultivable pathogenic treponemes. Conserved gene synteny was found in the Bosnia A genome compared to other sequenced syphilis and yaws treponemes. The TEN Bosnia A genome was distinct but very similar to the genome of yaws-causing T. pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) strains. Interestingly, the TEN Bosnia A genome was found to contain several sequences, which so far, have been uniquely identified only in syphilis treponemes.
title
Conclusions/Significance
p
The genome of TEN Bosnia A contains several sequences thought to be unique to TPA strains; these sequences very likely represent remnants of recombination events during the evolution of TEN treponemes. This finding emphasizes a possible role of repeated horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies in shaping the Bosnia A genome.
title
Author Summary
p
Uncultivable treponemes represent bacterial species and subspecies that are obligate pathogens of humans and animals causing diseases with distinct clinical manifestations. Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum causes sexually transmitted syphilis, a multistage disease characterized in humans by localized, disseminated, and chronic forms of infection, whereas Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (agent of yaws) and Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (agent of bejel) cause milder, non-venereally transmitted diseases affecting skin, bones and joints. The genetic basis of the pathogenesis and evolution of these microorganisms are still unknown. In this study, a high quality whole genome sequence of the T. pallidum subsp. endemicum Bosnia A strain was obtained using a combination of next-generation sequencing approaches and compared to the genomes of available uncultivable pathogenic treponemes. Relative to all known genomes of Treponema pallidum subspecies, no major genome rearrangements were found in the Bosnia A. The Bosnia A strain clustered with other yaws-causing strains, while syphilis-causing strains clustered separately. In general, the Bosnia A genome showed similar genetic characteristics to yaws treponemes but also contained several sequences thought to be unique to syphilis-causing strains. This finding suggests a possible role of repeated horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies in shaping the Bosnia A genome.
copyright
© 2014 Štaudová et al This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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